Gone are the days of simple smart-home tech—alarms, controlled lights, and garage door openers. Today, for example, smart homes are capable of saving you money by monitoring and adjusting your use of water, electricity, and gas. Also, cameras, sensors, and door locks allow for greater security.

However, smart-home programming frameworks have a vulnerability: their third-party permission models. Unless the models are secure, hackers can manipulate smart devices, causing users great physical, financial, and psychological harm.

Researchers have studied and analyzed the permission models of four popular frameworks: IoTivity, HomeKit, AllJoyn, and SmartThings.

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